Technology and its usage is revolutionizing every day. Each new day brings new possibilities. Revitalizing the Medical industry is in need of humankind and technology is a milestone of the medical industry. Technology has brought accessibility and efficiency to people.
Introduction to Nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology is based on the usage of materials and particles on Nanoscale. The concept of nanotechnology was exposed in 1959 by Richard Feynman in his lecture “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” delivered at the American physical society meeting (Caltech).
Latter in 1974, a Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi defined and used the term nanotechnology as:
Its concerns related to the material or structural properties regarding its size of one to a hundred nanometer small. Small particles are being used to make electronic items, medical appliances, and other daily-use products.
Nanotechnology allows more atoms to incorporate and interact in smaller spaces due to their reduced size. It provides space for potential and efficiency for the development of new electronic products like computers, lifesaving medicines, and power sources. Nanotechnology embraces the development in medicine, science, computing, robotics, and many fields of engineering regarding their efficiency and manufacturing.
The Role of Nanotechnology in Medicine:
Nanotechnology is a tremendous approach inducing accessibility, accuracy, easy and safe use of medicine, and medical performances. This technology is serving to cure many diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiac diseases, neural disorders, artificial limbs, and body parts, as well as many age-related impairments.
Nanoparticles, nanomaterial, and Nanofibers are in frequent use for the development of the medical industry. This technology allows a reduction in drug dosage, better diagnoses, as well as better and fast treatment.
The use of Nanofibers for lengthening the nerves is under concern. Nanofibers and other nanomaterials are already used in the manufacturing and processing of artificial limbs and internal organs implantation.
Nanomaterial used in medicine:
These are specified materials having Nano-scale properties. Its properties like conduction, resonance, color, and strength are based on Nano-scale dimensions. These materials include organic, inorganic, biological as well as non-biological materials having at least one dimension of Nano-scale.
Nano-particles, Nano-fibers, Nanotubes, Nano-luminous fibers, Nano-wires, and Nano-plates are majorly in usage in the medical field. All these materials possess at least one nano-scale dimension e.g. nano-tubes have a diameter of nano-scale but length can be several meters. On the other hand, nano-fibers have all three dimensions of nano-scale.
Applications of nanotechnology and Nano-materials:
Nanotechnology and the use of nanoparticles have shown gate of developmental approaches in every field of science but remarkably in the medical field.
- The technique of attaching Carbon nanotubes chips with antibodies for early diagnoses of blood cancer cells. Kidney failure or damage can be detected at early stages through gold nanorods.
- There are different nano-scale materials used to repair cell damage after a wound or disease. Such as Nano-robots that can work as natural antibodies which induce the healing process of the body.
- Nano-generator is energy-producing nano-scale material settled up in bandages that induce electrical impulse for healing wounds.
- Quantum dots are used in the treatment of resistant infection of antibiotics in the body.
- Polymers of nanoparticles are used to reduce internal bleeding just like synthetic platelets.
- The gold nanoparticles along with IR light (Infera-red) are used to kill bacteria to maintain hygiene in hospitals.
- Light, heat, or drug treatments can be given to specified cells through nanoparticles such as cancer cells. This process reduces the healthy cell damage ratio and activates specified location treatment.
- Nano-vesicles are used to deliver/inject the stem cells to the damaged or diseased organs. The cardiac stem cells can be trans-located to the damaged cardiac tissue for its recovery and fast treatment.
Potential risks of nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology sure has an enormous approach regarding the medical field but still, it possesses some disadvantages.
- Potential formation of fibrous protein knots or tangles causing brain damage.
- Nano-particles can cause genetic damage or mutation.
- Blood and heart vessels can also be affected by the induction of nano-particles.
- A toxicologist Dr. Sam Bruschi demonstrated that long-term exposure to nanoparticles can cause cancer.
- Nanomaterial show interaction with the external environment. They can cause dissolution, settling, chemical or biological transformation, and speciation due to dissolved molecular or ionic substances.
- Infestation of nanomaterial in food or the environment can cause harmful impacts on living beings like reproduction, behavioral and developmental changes in invertebrates.