10 Essential Electronic Components and Their Functions

In the modern world, electronic components have spread everywhere to achieve incredible goals. As the world has shifted online, so have various electronic component suppliers. Due to the growing demand for quality electronic products, these suppliers have also geared up to provide the best products at reasonable prices. But like every other industry, this one has its fair share of challenges.

Knowing the products that electronic component suppliers deal with should be a priority. Unless you understand their functions and various benefits, you cannot choose the right supplier to get them from. In the following, we have explained 10 of the essential electronic components along with their functions.


Resistors are often the first essential electronic component that you think about because, under any circumstances, resistors are needed to control the flow of current. Therefore, unlike its name, a resistor does not resist electricity’s flow but rather regulates it. It can be used for

  • Keeping the electricity reaching an appliance such as a heater, oven, toaster, etc. at a safe level so as to prevent overloading
  • Limiting the electric current also allows resistors to divide the voltage and gain control.

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

Those who have seen a light emitting diode can say that it appears as a bulb, but it is far more reliable. LEDs are now present in every single electric appliance you can find at home, in the office, or even in factories. LEDs’ functions include:

  • LEDs are generally used as an indicator light that lasts for ages, which is why they are used in several industries.


Inductors are similar to transistors because they are designed to be complicated yet important electronic components. Inductors are present in any complex electric system used in various industries, including aerospace, defense, medical, etc. Its functions are:

  • These are mainly used in electronic devices for storing and transferring energy.
  • Inductors are efficient at choking, filtering, or smoothing the high-frequency noise.


Capacitors, which store small amounts of electric charge, are similar to but diametrically opposed to resistors. The nature of capacitors makes them similar to a rechargeable battery that allows alternative current but resists direct current. Its functions are:

  • Temporary energy storage because of how they store electric charge.
  • Blocking direct current in an electronic circuit while allowing alternating current to flow.


Understanding a transistor is easy when you imagine a switch that has two states, namely, on and off. A transistor is utilized for creating complex electronic circuits such as amplifiers. But a transistor is more sophisticated than a simple switch, as you need to pass current through it to change the state. They are used in:

  • Creating various kinds of microprocessors requires millions of transistors these days.
  • Mainly, transistors are used for switching applications or for amplification.

Integrated Circuit (IC)

When numerous electrical components are combined, an integrated circuit is formed. For example, a million transistors can be integrated to build an IC that acts like a powerful transistor. It is typically available on the market in the form of a small chip that enables anyone to accomplish what a million electronic components would. Its functions are:

  • Simplifying an entire project where several individual components are needed
  • Any electronic component found in all modern devices can be amplified, oscillated, or otherwise operated.

Circuit breakers

A short circuit or power surge can occur in any mechanical switching device. But modern electronic devices have a circuit breaker that prevents such mishaps. It can automatically detect faulty conditions and stop the current flow at once. Its functions are:

  • Using current overflow to prevent disasters


A motor has several components, including a stator, an eye bolt, an enclosure, bearings, and a conduit box. These are found to be extremely efficient in supplying energy as compared to the hydraulic alternatives. The motor’s functions include

  • Converting electrical energy into mechanical energy efficiently and quickly.


In most modern electrical appliances, fuses and circuit breakers work in tandem. Just like a circuit breaker, a fuse is also needed to protect electric equipment from getting burned out. It has a wire that heats up and gradually damages the circuit to stop the power surge. Its functions are:

  • It can sustain different amounts of current to protect the circuit.
  • Fuse acts as a barrier against overload and blackouts.


A transformer is a useful electric device that converts electric energy from one circuit to another by using mutual induction of the wire coils inside it. There are two types of transformers: one is step-up, and the other is step-down. Its functions are:

  • Converting power between circuits having different voltages.
  • Keeping the frequency intact while converting power

Final words

Simply put, if you want to make good use of your money by choosing the right kind of electronic components, then this information will help you.

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