History and Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

What is intelligence?

Before all, let’s understand the meaning of intelligence. The intelligence has a lot of meaning, but we can presume that by saying is the set of processes found in systems, to understand, learn and to adapt to the new situation in life.

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a simulation of human intelligence adapted by machine, especially computer system. These processes include learning and understanding information (the acquisition of information and rules for using it), and self-correction. The applications of AI include an expert system, speech recognition, and machine vision.


History of Artificial Intelligence (AI) :

The idea of inanimate objects coming to life as intelligent beings have been around for a long time. The ancient Greeks had myths about robots and Chinese and Egyptian Engineers-built automatons. The beginnings of modern AI can be traced to classical philosophers’ attempts to describe human thinking as a symbolic system.

AI was coined by John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, in 1956 at The Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born. Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics. It has gained prominence recently due, in part, to big data, or the increase in speed, size, and variety of data businesses are now collecting. AI can perform tasks such as identifying patterns in the data more efficiently than humans, enabling businesses to gain more insight out of their data.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Categories

The AI can be classified in any number of ways, but I will announce two types, the weak AI and the strong. The weak AI is a sort of intelligence system that is designed to do a simple work for a task. The famous weak AI is Siri from Apple, she is a virtual personal assistant. The strong AI, also named by artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution.

The types of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Type 1: Reactive machines. An example is Deep Blue, the IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. Deep Blue can identify pieces on the chess board and make predictions, but it has no memory and cannot use past experiences to inform future ones. It analyzes possible moves — its own and its opponent and chooses the most strategic move. Deep Blue and Google’s AlphaGO were designed for narrow purposes and cannot easily be applied to another situation.
  • Type 2: Limited memory. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in autonomous vehicles have been designed this way. Observations used to inform actions happening in the not-so-distant future, such as a car that has changed lanes. These observations are not stored permanently.
  • Type 3: Theory of mind. This is a psychology term. It refers to the understanding that others have their own beliefs, desires, and intentions that impact the decisions they make. This kind of AI does not yet exist.
  • Type 4: Self-awareness. In this category, Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems have a sense of self, have consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand their current state and can use the information to infer what others are feeling. This type of AI does not yet exist.

Some applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Education. AI can automate grading, giving educators more time. AI can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. Artificial Intelligence (AI) tutors can provide additional support to students, ensuring they stay on track. AI could change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
  • Business. Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have been incorporated into websites to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies such as Gartner and Forrester.
  • Finance. AI applied to personal finance applications, such as Mint or Turbo Tax, is upending financial institutions. Applications such as these could collect personal data and provide financial advice. Other programs, IBM Watson being one, have been applied to the process of buying a home. Today, the software performs much of the trading on Wall Street.


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