What is telecommunications (telecom)?
Tele means far and communication means sharing of information. So, telecommunication means transferring of data from one point to the other which are far away from each other. These points are nothing but transmitter and a receiver, which are together called as a transceiver. The number of transmitters and receivers used, changes based on the application. The transmitter consists of several other sub-blocks like analog to digital converter, modulator, multiplexer, and encoder whereas the receiver consists of digital to analog converter, demodulator, de-multiplexer, and decoder. The information sent may be of different form like symbols, audio, video, image etc, basically analog in nature.
In olden days, the channel used for telecommunication is copper wire and presently it is used in some areas. But, this is not cost effective and does not cover a larger area. So instead, we can opt for optical fiber. This optical fiber transfers information in the form of light and works on the principle of total internal reflection. This overcomes most of the problems faced while using copper. The noise interference is also reduced to a larger extent. But it’s difficult to join an optical fiber when cutting since it is very small and nearly equal to the size of our hair. The process used to join the cut ends of an optical fiber is called as splicing.
Basic Concepts of Satellite Communication
Telecommunications make use of satellites for larger distance communication which revolves around the earth in elliptical orbits. There will be a huge number of earth stations to handle the transferring and receive process. All the internet services can also be provided and it’s been very easy for the people to make use of this service. In the earlier days, there used to be a single telephone for the whole village or town and even the call cost was also more. So, now with the help of satellites, the call cost has been decreased to a larger extent. We even can make free phone calls and send messages with the help of internet to people all over the world.
These satellites are maintained by earth stations which govern the sub-systems. They get their power from the sun by the help of solar panels connected to them. A lot of efforts are required to maintain the satellite in its particular orbit as their position changes due to the external forces that may act upon them. They have a wide range of applications like navigation, radio, crop monitoring, military, atmospheric conditions etc. Hence, satellites are an integral part of our daily life. They are flexible, covers vast areas and has control over their own network.
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